## Phase 3 Image IT

**Phase 3 Action Plan**

In honors physics classes, the big idea of force and motion is the focus of my Imagine IT Project. The big ideas stated as follows:

· Interactions of an object with other objects can be described by force

· Interactions between systems can result in changes in those systems

· Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.

Stage 1 –Desired Results

Established Goals: Next Generation Science Standards:

HS-PS2-1 Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [

*Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.*]

Transfer goals describe what the students will be able to independently use their learning to describe, explain, and apply the concept that an interaction between two objects causes changes in the translational and/or rotational motion of each object and determine the net force, when more than one interaction is involved in an object’s change of motion.

In this unit the students will understand that in physics, the study of motion of objects, and the related concepts of force and energy form a field called mechanics. Kinematics is part of mechanics that describe how objects move. Dynamics is part of mechanics that deals with force and why objects move as they do. Interactions of objects cause force; unbalanced forces cause motion.

Enduring Understanding: Students will understand that...

- All forces share certain common characteristics when considered by observers in inertial reference frames.
- The description of motion, including such quantities such as position, velocity, or acceleration, depends on the observer, specifically on the reference frame.
- When the interactions of objects are considered, we consider the observers in inertial reference frames. In such reference frames, an object that does not interact with any other objects moves at constant velocity.
- In inertial reference frames, forces are detected by their influence on the motion of an object (velocity)
- Force and velocity are vectors quantities that have magnitude and direction.
- Multiple forces are exerted on an object, the vector sum of these forces, referred to as the net force, causes a change in the motion of an object.
- ·Acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force. If a component of the acceleration is observed to be zero, then the sum of the corresponding force components must be zero.
- If one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on the first object. These two forces are known as action-reaction pair.

Essential Knowledge: Student will know...

- An observer in a particular reference frame can be describe the motion of an object using such quantities as position, displacement, distance, velocity, speed and acceleration
- Displacement, velocity, and acceleration are all vectors quantities.
- Displacement is change in position. Velocity is the rate of change of position with time. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Changes in each property are expressed by subtracting initial values from final values.
- A choice of reference frame determines the direction and the magnitude of each these quantities
- Forces are described by vectors. Forces are detected by their influence on the motion of an object. Forces have magnitude and direction.
- A force exerted on an object is always due to the interaction of that object with another object.
- An object cannot exert a force on itself.
- Even though an object is at rest, there may be forces exerted on the object by other objects.
- If one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts force at equal magnitude on the first object in the opposite direction.

Essential Questions: Students will keep considering ...

- What are the fundamental forces of interactions or forces in nature?
- Does constant motion require force
- Are weight and mass the same thing just different names?
- Does object with zero acceleration must be at rest?
- Do action and reaction forces always occur simultaneously?

Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills: Student will know…

- Motion of an object can be expressed using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations.
- Designing an experimental investigation of the motion of the object
- Analyzing experimental data describing motion of an object and is able to express the results of the analysis using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations.
- Representing forces in diagrams or mathematically using appropriate labeled vectors with magnitude, direction, and units during the analysis of situation.
- Analyzing a scenario and make claims develop arguments, justify assertions) about the forces exerted on an object by other objects for different types of forces or components of forces.
- Challenge a claim that an object can exert force on itself.
- Describe force as interactions between two objects and identify both objects for any force...
- Claim about the force on an object due to the presence of other objects with the same property: mass, electric charge.
- Construct explanation of physical situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton’s third law and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces.
- Use Newton’s third law to make a claim and predictions about the action-reaction pairs of forces when tow objects interact.
- Analyze situation involving interactions among several objects by using free-body diagrams that include the application of Newton’s third law to identify force

**Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence (performance of understanding) (500 words)**

The acceptable evidence (performance of understand) involving the understanding of force and motion consist of evaluative criteria using rubric scale 1-4 to determine whether the students achieve the desired result stated from the desired result. Student will show their learning by

- Observe a demonstration, design and conduct experimental investigation. For example, observing a demonstration of an object at rest and object in motion using a buggy cart.
- Express the motion of an object using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representation
- Designing an experimental investigation of the motion of an object moving in straight path
- Analyze experimental data describing motion of an object using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations.
- Assessment evidence of performing experimental investigation using rubric
- Daily formative assessment, DFA through question and answer discussion or bell ringer
- Graded formative assessment, GFA through quiz and test
- Creating a project: Create a video clip to resolve misconception of force and motion.
- Summative Assessment, SA

Investigation Rubric

Science Content Standard: Students, through the inquiry process, demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, and communicate the result and form reasonable conclusion of scientific investigation.

Score 4.0

In addition to score 3.0 performance, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught.

Score 3.5

In addition to score 3.0 performance, in-depth inferences and application with partial success.

Score 3.0

The student demonstrate an understanding of important information, such as:

Student will design and construct a graph with correct placement of dependent & dependent variables, and identify possible sources of error.

Student will interpret trends in data using graphical analysis and identify mathematical relationship such as direct and inverse proportions. Student exhibits no major errors or omissions.

Sample Task

- Lab situation to gather and process data into graphical form, using graphical analysis.
- Use technology such as Vernier sensors.
- Graphical analysis of generated or given data to identify mathematical possible relationships.

Score 2.5

No major errors or omissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content

Score 2.0

The student exhibits no major errors or omissions regarding the simple details and process, such as:

Constructing and interpreting data graphs showing dependent & independent variables.

However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and process.

Identify mathematical relationship from graph.

Sample Task

- Lab situations to gather and process data into graphical forms, using graphical analysis, with assistance.
- Use technology such as Vernier sensors
- Graphical analysis of generated or given data to identify possible relationships, with assistance of graphical summary sheet.

Partial knowledge of the 2.0 content but major errors or omission regarding the 3.0 content

Score 1.0

With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and process.

Score 0.5

With help, a partial understand of the 2.0 content, but not the 3.0 content.

Score 0 .0

Even with help, no understanding of skill demonstrated

**3. Plan learning experience and instruction**

Context: The specific context in which I am working as STEM educator, to provide instructions that demonstrate the weaving science, technology, engineering and mathematics in my instruction. Considering the big idea of force and motion, as physics concepts that use the language of mathematics (mathematical relationship of the model observed) and through investigation, the use of available technology likes Vernier sensors to collect data and to analyze data in addition to the T-84 calculator. The engineering components can be demonstrated during investigation of motion of an object in a level plane versus the motion of an object using the ramp or inclined surface. Students can extend their learning by making connection of slope in highway or motion of snow in stiffer roof in design process. In this unit, students will use observe a phenomena through demonstration and brainstorm all possible observations, then sort the qualitative and quantitative observations based of relevance to the focus of observation for example (relationship between position vs. time of moving object in straight path).

· Content: The STEM discipline that I want my students to be able to understand the concept of force and motion in physics and through experimental investigation apply inquiry process, demonstrate the ability to design, conduct, evaluate, and communicate the results and form reasonable conclusions of scientific investigation of force and motion as stated in the desired result considering the big ideas transfer goal :Students will be able to independently use their learning to describe, explain, and apply the concept that an interaction between two objects causes changes in the translational and/or rotational motion of an object.Students will be able determine the net force, when more than one interaction is involved in an object’s change of motion.

Pedagogy: The pedagogical approach that will work best in the study of force and motion will include scientific investigation or lab to develop disciplinary and process skills; obtain immediate feedback and respond of the purpose of the investigation; develop awareness of student own skill or strategies collecting data; evaluate result such as displacement and time of the object in motion; and be able to make a connection that buggy cart moves faster in inclined rail as to how road are build for cars.

Discussion strategy that can be employ as whole class discussion or small group discussion to practice thinking and communicating the force and motion of an object through different activities that students can evaluate their position, arguments, or designs. For example in the study of force, evaluate how friction force affects the motion of the object? Using carpet and tiles students will be able to evaluate and support their position how frictional force affects their decision of using carpet or tiles in their own home. Or whole class discussion of fundamental forces in nature to expose students’ prior experience or knowledge about forces as introductory lesson.

Writing a lab report or summarizing articles will be use to develop systematic relationships among ideas; application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation’ reflect on own thinking; record the evolution of own thinking; practice disciplinary conventions; and practice responding to feedback and evaluation.

Group Project. Students will create a unit project to practice high-level cognitive skills (i.e.; application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). Group project will help develop student’s meta-skills such as leadership, communication, conflict resolution; strategize and plan how to tackle complex problem and distribute work.

Technology: The technology seems best suited for this unit, the use of Vernier sensors in data collection during experimental investigation. An optional use of iphone to take an image of the experiment set up or video of object in motion for analysis. A google documents can be use for each group to share data effectively.